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Valentin Pluchek and Stanislaw Pchenikov discuss Russian theater, specifically Moscow

BROADCAST: Jan. 19, 1962 | DURATION: 00:32:49

Transcript

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Studs Terkel In 1955 the distinguished young British drama critic, perhaps the best writer of the drama in the English language today, Kenneth Tynan, spoke of his memories of the theater in Moscow when he visited Russia. Where the Old Vic Theater, as Peter Brooks staged Hamlet with Paul Scofield in the role, and in his book 'Curtains'. It's a collection of various columns of Mr. Tynan (music playing in background). He devotes a good deal of it to theater in Russia specifically to theater in Moscow. The excitement of the period, the number of theaters, the kind of plays performed, the kind of actors he saw. We're delighted to have in the studio this morning, one of the distinguished Russian figures in the theater, Valentin Pluchek who is the director. Are you called the Art Director? We'll ask about that phrase in a minute, the director of the theater of satire of Moscow. With him was a journalist, Stanislav Chernikov, who was formerly connected with Radio Moscow. And so immediately we think of theater in the Soviet Union, and the comment of Mr Tynan, the British critic, he spoke of about twenty one to thirty theaters going on at the same time in Moscow. Is that so Mr. Pluchek?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov There are thirty two theaters in Moscow.

Studs Terkel Now these thirty two theaters, are they open in operation all year round?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Yes. Our theater system is quite different, from what you have here in America.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov All our theaters, all our theaters are state theaters. And every theater has it's own cast, or company.

Studs Terkel Every theater has its own repertory cast or company?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel Like comedy Frances. [unintelligable]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know all over the Soviet Union, there are six hundred theaters with permanent...

Studs Terkel With permanent reperatory companies, actors then are are, receive an annual wage, that is they are paid all year round?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know every actor gets a fixed salary, all year round, and the salary no is different. And the, salaries given to any actor, separately. At the amount of money he gets depends on his qualifications I will say.

Studs Terkel Or his stature.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Or his stature.

Studs Terkel I'd say distinguished actor like [Torchanonava?] What's the name of [unintelligible].

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov He said that, we have many distinguished actresses now in the Maly Theatre, and but there is another one now [Yableshka?] is still older than 13 year old.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov She's proud of and a ninety, ninety five.

Studs Terkel And she's still acting?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel It's an interesting point that you making here, that actors depending upon seniority, and and, stature in the theater, receive different wages. It's not all the same wages, you have different salaries than other actors.

Stanislaw Pchenikov No, it's not one for all.

Studs Terkel I'd say the different wages, depending upon the status.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Will have actors of the first position as was say? Second and third.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And every group there are subdivisions, you know that three groups inside the first position and in second and third.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Now this is scale, you know, there is a rather big gap between the low paid and highly paid.

Studs Terkel Yes, and highly. Young actors, the ingenue and the new actor the, you mentioned the number of theaters and that's amazing for one city. The plays, these are legitimate, we were speaking now of legitimate theaters only, where plays are presented? [music playing in background]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov There are twelve plays.

Studs Terkel This is in your theater? The theater of satire.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov The picture is similar.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov We don't have one play stage every night, we're having different.

Studs Terkel I was about to ask that Mr. Tynan mentions this in his play, there are no long runs. That there isn't a play the runs for two years, there are different. The actors vary in roles most night to night, is that it?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov There are different ways. One actor plays.

Studs Terkel So the challenge is continues, to kept fresh and all the time.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know, and, one it is a success. Mr. Pluchek says there's a play where I play, five or, six, six times a month.

Studs Terkel That's a success?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel Well if my mathematics is right then Mr. Pluchek, and I think Mr. Tynan mentions this. Then a visitor in Moscow, or a citizen of Moscow, someone small town, can see as many as a choice of about a hundred and fifty plays a week?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel If you multiply the theaters and plays. [Music playing in background]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov More than one hundred and fifty.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel This is incredible by our standard.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Three hundred

Studs Terkel [unintelligible] You can see as many as that? Three hundred plays in that one city. Is it that choice multiplying the theaters by the different changes of plays.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov About ten or fifteen plays, staged there.

Studs Terkel Then this would include, well what is the spectrum of literature of the classroom Shakespeare to contemporary plays?

Studs Terkel The choice is everything.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov

Valentin Pluchek Very wide scale. [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Western classics. [Russian] Vary widely.

Valentin Pluchek Shakespeare. [Translator repeating each name after Mr. Pluchek]

Valentin Pluchek

Stanislaw Pchenikov

Valentin Pluchek

Stanislaw Pchenikov Moliere. Moliere. Ben Johnson. Ben Johnson.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Bernard Shaw. By British authors, Bernard Shaw.

Studs Terkel Shaw.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian] Ostrovfski.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel These are the classics then. And Ibsen too, I assume?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian] The Bluebirds.

Studs Terkel The Blue Bird of Maeterlinck. Are there contemporary American playwrights whose presented is say presented, Miller, Tennessee Williams?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Is a hit as they.

Studs Terkel Very popular.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And now we, get acquainted with plays by Williams Tennessee.

Studs Terkel Ah, Tennessee Williams, which play, I'm curious as to which play of Tennessee Williams?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Orpheus Descending.

Studs Terkel Orpheus Descending, we have had that.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And as far as Arthur Miller, is concerned, we have Death of a Salesman, and Site from the Bridge.

Studs Terkel A View from the Bridge.

Stanislaw Pchenikov A View

Valentin Pluchek from the Bridge. [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know The View from the Bridge is very popular, and it's very it's a hard jump to get the ticket, you know.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov That every night, you know, at the entrance at any theater, you can meet a big group of people asking for tickets.

Studs Terkel Oh they're waiting for tickets somebody is not going. Well now you raise an interesting point. We'll come back to the matter of [unintelligible]. The matter of audience, you say these theaters, these many theaters, in all these places are jammed every night? Are crowded every night?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Mr. Pluchek wants to add that you know the biggest percentage of plays, is concerning the modern life. You know it's plays by modern Soviet playwrights.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And we try to, you know to acquaint our people with the best samples of western dramatists.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel He did Nekrassov, that comedy, a take off on Journalism. I know that play.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Mr.Pluchek said that he staged it, and Sartre himself was present at the rehearsal.

Studs Terkel Of Nekrassov? That's a very funny play. I read that about three weeks ago [unintelligible]

Stanislaw Pchenikov In a lot of satire.

Studs Terkel On journalism, on journalism. Yes.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov That's why it was, no, up to the profile of my theater, he said.

Studs Terkel So I want to come to your theater in a moment. Mr. Pluchek. You worked with Jean Paul Sartre, he came there, and you directed Nekrossev?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov He failed to attend the first night.

Studs Terkel I think, I think we should point something out about Mr. Pluchek, its, its a social point, a social point, before we ask about you. At, at the beginning, I spoke of Peter Brook, the British director, staging Old Vic's Hamlet, that was seen in Moscow on a wildly acclaimed. Peter Brook is your cousin you say?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov We had not known about it before he came to Moscow, right, but when we met, we, we found out that we were cousins.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov I knew that, I, had had an uncle somewhere because my, Mr. Pluchek mother died and you know, he did not know where, you know, exactly but he knew that somewhere had an uncle.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov He only knew that, uh, his mother's name was Brook.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov He never expected that, British producer Peter Brook has anything to do with this.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov But, when he came to Moscow, and attended the performance of the.

Studs Terkel Mayakovsky's, The Bed Bug Club.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov I was surprised by Peter Brook, could speak Russian very well.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And when they had a talk, now they found out they were cousins.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov A very interesting rub where lived in separate, different countries but we.

Studs Terkel And both interested in theater.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov We discussed this problem, and you know, we found that our grand grandfather was an architect.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Maybe this was why, you know, we had great, you know, [unintelligible]

Studs Terkel Feelings for each other, empathy you say, toward each other. Why this is a remarkable coincidence, and a very happy one, we think to, there's a moral to this to, about theater itself. The theater being the mucilage, the glue, if you will, that connected people to one another.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel If we may, Mr. Pluchek, you mentioned in, in this conversation, Mayakovsky, The Bed Bug, the satire. I want to ask about your theater and satire. We in America, think that the Russians have no sense of humor when it comes about their society and about themselves, and that laughter at self is somewhat taboo. And yet there is a theater of satire. I should like to ask more about that.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Love laughter and jokes.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov He said that Russian, dramaturgy.

Studs Terkel

Stanislaw Pchenikov Dramaturgy. Dramaturgy has a, has a very good tradition, and the first big plays staged in Russia were the satire by Gogol with An Inspector.

Studs Terkel The Inspector General.

Stanislaw Pchenikov The Inspector General.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And one of our classics, you know classic satire playwrights, is Sultikoffs Dream was.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov In how society would feel, that humanity, you know parts with its past with laughter.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov When market, you know, at what is bad, what is old, what is dying away, and also a sure way of laugh at the drawbacks of...

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And the shoppers are criti, criticism.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov The better will be our development and growth.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Humor helps us to expose all drawbacks.

Studs Terkel This is a point by the way in which I am sure that many listeners would be interested in. I could see where you would do Gogol's, The Inspector General, a kidding and a laughter at that which has gone to some extent right. Pomposity, but does your theater of satire kid yourselves now? Your contemporary drawbacks listen to that too.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov The bulk, the bulk of the play satire plays are on, you know, connected with the every day.

Studs Terkel With today.

Stanislaw Pchenikov With todays life.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Where we consider Mayakovsky to be our solid classic.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Very sharp, very sad plays.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Which contains criticism of being social, he said that, ulcers, ulcers?

Studs Terkel Ulcers or frailty, sores yes.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov His play, A Bathhouse.

Studs Terkel The bedbug.

Stanislaw Pchenikov No.

Studs Terkel Oh, another one?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel What do you call this play?

Stanislaw Pchenikov The Bathroom.

Studs Terkel Oh The Bathroom.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Or Bathhouse.

Studs Terkel Bathhouse.

Stanislaw Pchenikov We have in our country, ah bathhouse where we have very hot water, very hot and you wash out you know.

Studs Terkel Oh the Russian bath?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And the very, you know titles show that Mayakovsky wanted to wash away, you know, to with hot water, you know, all the drawbacks.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov The central character in a main hero of, of the plays, bureaucrats.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian] Bureaucrat.

Studs Terkel Bureaucrat, yes that's a very good word.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian] Bureaucrat.

Studs Terkel It's a familiar and universal word.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And Mayakowsky is, getting all forms of bureaucracy.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel Kidding it?

Stanislaw Pchenikov He is kidding but against, you know, people who try to.

Studs Terkel Oh, against the grovelers, I see, against the psycho-phants. Against those who seek favors of those in power.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Of those in power.

Studs Terkel He is kidding them, we call them the yes men. Or the organization men in America.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Empty, [unintelligible].

Studs Terkel They talk idly, but another words if I follow this, it's the kidding of what we would call the Russian organization man that has a prototype America.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel And so this play was popular, this play is popular?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Very popular, and it's still on.

Studs Terkel And it's still going?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Modern and also with man.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov The worker, you know.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov The ideals and interest of his class.

Studs Terkel This is the bed bug you talking about now?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Became ah.

Studs Terkel A social climber.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Social climber.

Studs Terkel This is one in which you kid, Nouveau Riche, which who are present in all countries too.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel Am I correct in this assumption?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Because now human drawbacks.

Studs Terkel Foibles, drawbacks, yes frailties.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Frailties.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov International now.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Like mindedness and, stupidity.

Studs Terkel Isn't there a line in The Bed Bug give him that right, that one that Tynan uses, a very humorous line in which the man is over dressing and being very gauche. When someone advises him, don't wear two ties at the same time, especially if they are of different colors.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel Yes.

Stanislaw Pchenikov The main thing, you know, which is marked that and percipkin.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Mary's, daughter off a rich, hairdresser.

Studs Terkel Hairdresser?

Stanislaw Pchenikov Hairdresser.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Netman, you know, is a Russian word.

Studs Terkel Netman?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov It's, it's,private, it's just an undertaking.

Studs Terkel Oh he's a entrepreneur, is that what you mean? Maybe I misinterpreted here?

Valentin Pluchek No, he had his own.

Studs Terkel Yeah, he's, he's an entrepreneur, he's in private enterprise.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Yes, that's right.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov He doesn't want to work. He wants just to have good food, and I said fat you know, and he wants to, listen to touching music.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Those who fought now have the right to to have rest at the Crown Riverside.

Studs Terkel I see. And then you are kidding, this theater of satire and kids, current frailties as well as those of the past does this?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel Do you have, house with the question of censorship I'm sure comes up. What is it you cannot do? Is there a definite form of censorship in getting?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know as soon as play, a play is, is ready, you know, they have to process through censorship but, the censors.

Studs Terkel Censors.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Prohibit only three things.

Studs Terkel What are those three things?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel Pornography.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Counterrevolution.

Studs Terkel Counterrevolutionary.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And you know opening opening state secrets.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel The first arrest, well the first and the third, pornography and the opening of state secrets, is self explanatory. The second question though, counterrevolutionary, this is a broad phrase, you see.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel What, isn't that is a phrase that the sensor can use almost?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel The phrase counterrevolutionary is very broad, you see.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov In our country.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Any of the drama, you know, freely and openly.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov If, the task of, you know, pro revolutionary satire was to destroy the system to destroy, you know, their reason.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know we criticize our drawbacks, not to destroy our system, but to strengthen it.

Studs Terkel But to strengthen it, I see, in other words through watching, through kidding, joking, jabbing at the ulcers, at the frailties of the society itself, too as well as of individuals that. Is that, allowable or is that considered counterrevolutionary?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel You say you kid bureaucracy, that's, that of course is something.

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov It's a big drawback, hamper our development.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov In the program adopted by the 22nd Congress.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov There's, parts, you know, devoted to arts.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Where they say that the

Valentin Pluchek

Stanislaw Pchenikov

Valentin Pluchek

Stanislaw Pchenikov task. [Russian] Observant art. [Russian] Is to show all the best.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Expose, everything then.

Studs Terkel Well this is of course, is, is, quite interesting and revealing. Uh, you, you mention the 22nd Congress I, I, it wasn't connectedwith this, but Ilya Ehrenberg, not too long ago, was criticizing what he felt was a great deal of bureaucracy and psycho phantasm. He was serious about with Mayakovsky was kidding in The Bath House, and has there been a change? Has what had been a shroud in the past been lifted as far as freedom of the art is concerned?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov By all means, after the 20th Congress of our party.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And after the criticism.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Criticism of the Stalinist crowd.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know the initiative of every man, is being developed.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov We people of art now, have very broad rights.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And our government and the party consider criticism, and self-criticism, the main, you know, leading force of our society.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov To move forward.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Everything that hampers the development should be criticized.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And the task of our Soviet art is to bring up a new man, to educate a new man.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov A new man of the communist society.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov I want, we want this man to be a good man.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And their humor is, is a powerful weapon, including [unintelligible]

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Social and public, and all

Valentin Pluchek

Stanislaw Pchenikov that. [Russian] Such as bureaucracy, careerism.

Studs Terkel Mmmm, huh.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know, this neutrality towards, people you.

Studs Terkel Coexistence.

Stanislaw Pchenikov No, no no, they said that when you don't, take, other people's business, you know, to your heart.

Studs Terkel Oh so, oh, your talking about coolness now?

Stanislaw Pchenikov Coolness.

Studs Terkel The neu, the neutrality in that sense, I, I misunderstood. Sort of, in personality.

Stanislaw Pchenikov In personality.

Studs Terkel In coolness.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov And stupidity.

Studs Terkel Perhaps this is a point that may be delicate but Mr Ehrenberg, raised the question of about us Pasternak. Do you feel that perhaps, a mistake was made in the censorship, of Zhivago, at the time, you know?

Stanislaw Pchenikov [Russian]

Studs Terkel Mmmmm, hasn't there been a change of attitude towards this now?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov You know the case is that, our people know and love Pasternak, as a good poet.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian] .

Stanislaw Pchenikov He's saying, for his political activity.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Before, I left the Moscow for the United States. I bought one volume edition of his poetry, just issued.

Studs Terkel He is not taboo then?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov No, yes, he's published.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov But we consider, the novel, you mentioned, Zhivago, you know, artistically weak, you know.

Studs Terkel Well that could be, you see, this matter of whether its artistically weak or not, is a matter of debate. The question is, something that is artistically weak, we here would say sometimes artistically weak still has a right. [unintelligible] Say a bad Ernest Hemingway book?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Would not understand. From big you know, some treasury of our literature.

Studs Terkel Shows that I see. I'm sure there, there are, several...

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel Why this was chosen you mean at the time, you feel there was a political implication involved perhaps?

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov This, you know, condenses.

Studs Terkel But

Valentin Pluchek the? [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov To be friends with American people.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov To say more, you know, modern writers, published in our country.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Big circulation.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Out of all, big American writers.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Hemingway. Faulkner. Big American right.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel Erskine Caldwell, Hemingway.

Stanislaw Pchenikov Hemingway.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel Sinclair Lewis. Yes.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Studs Terkel Oh, and Upton Sinclair too.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov Number of American writers.

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov We publish their books, and

Valentin Pluchek [Russian]

Stanislaw Pchenikov We want to see, you know to know the truth. [Recording just ended]